Photography by Gifford M. Mast, Date Unknown
This photograph displays dead Filipinos that fought against the United States army. Filipino soldiers fought in protest against American control over their state. The Philippine army used guerrilla tactics to fight against the Americans, but the Americans were also brutal in their fighting. The United States soldiers burned down entire villages, tortured soldiers, and put concentrations of Filipino civilians in "protected zones". An estimated 1.5 million Filipino civilians and soldiers were killed during the war.
Published in the Minneapolis Journal in September, 1898
This political cartoon was a way of displaying the “white man’s burden”. In order to convince the public of a good cause to go to war in the Philippines, political cartoons displayed the United States helping out the poor Filipinos to fight against the Spanish. In this comic, Uncle Sam sees a weak Filipino boy picking up rocks to use in his slingshot to fight against the Spanish in his country’s borders. The caption “It makes a difference” suggests that with America’s help, the fragile Filipino army can free itself from its oppressors. In reality, after Spain was defeated, the United States took over the Philippines as its new territory.
Composed by Fred Gagel, published in 1898
This sheet music was composed for the celebration of the Hawaii annexation. Although Hawaii was originally habited by Asian/Pacific Islanders, a substantial amount of white Americans moved to the island to set up sugar plantations. Soon enough, there were enough Americans living in Hawaii that it could become part of the United States. Although many native Hawaiians did not support the annexation, a majority of the population of the island did and therefore Hawaii became an American state.